IrJNS Instructions

 | Post date: 2017/01/8 | 

Instructions for Authors
The Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery (IrJNS) is the peer-reviewed scientific quarterly of Neurosurgical Society of Iran published by Guilan University of Medical Sciences. It accepts articles in the field of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Neurotrauma, Brain Tumors, Neuroscience, and Spine. IrJNS welcomes following manuscript types for publication; research articles, systematic review and meta-analysis articles, review articles, case reports/series, editorial, communication and letter to editors.

Submission Preparation

All manuscripts should be submitted through our online website, www.irjns.org and must fulfill the criteria predetermined by the editorial board of IrJNS which follows the standard guidelines stated in COPE, the details of which can be reviewed at the following address: http://publicationethics.org/files/International%20standards_authors_for%20website_11_Nov_2011.pdf

Cover letter

All submissions must be accompanied by a cover letter which should be uploaded while submitting all other attachments which can be found here: http://irjns.org/page/115/Authors%E2%80%99-Statement. The letter must include a statement declaring that the study has not been published before and/or submitted elsewhere concurrently and all contributions must be clearly declared. Authors reporting experimental studies on human subjects must include a statement of assurance in the Methods and Materials section of the manuscript reading that: (1) informed consent was obtained from study subjects and (2) the study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html. If copyright permission is required to reproduce any material in an article, include confirmation in the cover letter that such permission has been obtained from the copyright holder. 

Title Page

All submissions must include a title page containing the following information letter which should be uploaded while submitting all other attachments:

  • Type of article
  • Running Title
  • Title of the article (with first letter of each word capitalized except propositions)
  • Full name, postal address, e-mail and telephone number of the corresponding author
  • Full name, department, institution, city and country of all co-authors
  • ORCIDs of all authors
  • Ethical Considerations (Please state the Ethical Code)
  • Is the article extracted from a thesis?  (Please write a statement specifying the university where the thesis was defended). This should be stated in the Title Page under the heading Ethical Considerations (Please state the Ethical Code)
  • Have the authors obtained Written Informed Consent from all patients/participants? This should be stated in the Title Page under the heading Ethical Considerations
  • Funding Sources
  • If the study is a Clinical Trial, please provide IRCT Registration Code
Please consider the following CHECKLIST before submission:
  •  Is the Type of article indicated in the separate Title Page uploaded during submission?
  • Is Running Title written in the Title Page?
  • Are the Authors' Names and Surnames written in the Title Page, starting with capital letter?
  • Are complete Affiliation of all authors written in the Title Page?
  • Are the ORCIDs of all authors provided?
  • Is the affiliation phone number, email and postal address of the Corresponding Author stated in the Title Page?
  • Has any institutional review board confirmed the study? This should be stated in the Title Page under the heading Ethical Considerations (Please state the Ethical Code)
  • Is the article extracted from a thesis?  (Please write a statement specifying the university where the thesis was defended). This should be stated in the Title Page under the heading Ethical Considerations (Please state the Ethical Code)
  • Have the authors obtained Written Informed Consent from all patients/participants? This should be stated in the Title Page under the heading Ethical Considerations
  • Have the authors explained Funding Sources in Title Page? This should be stated in the Title Page under the heading Ethical Considerations
  • If the study is a Clinical Trial, please provide IRCT Registration Code
  • Is the Highlights section written before abstract in the main blind manuscript? (Highlights 
    (Kindly provide a summary of the key points of your article in the form of BULLET points. Highlights are three to five result-oriented points that provide readers with an at-a-glance overview of the main findings of your article. Think of them as a quick snippet of the results-short and sweet. Each Highlight must be 85 characters or fewer, including spaces, and the Highlights together must convey only the results of the study.)
  • Is Plain Language Summary section written before abstract in the main blind manuscript? ((Please provide a Plain Language Summary for the article in 200-300 words. Consider that Plain Language Summary is different from abstract and it has to be written for non-specialists. To provide it, consider the following points: 1. Think about your audience (e.g. journalists, science-interested public), 2. Get rid of jargon, 3. Explain what the study is about. Remember, others will need more context about what you studied, 4. Explain what you found, 5. Explain why this matters. Discuss the importance of these findings not just in terms of their implications for your field but in terms of their relevance to the public.)
  • Is the structure of the Abstract according to the article type indicated in the journal instruction? (available at http://irjns.org/page/21/Submission-Instruction)
  • Is the maximum number of Keywords 6 words?
  • Is the structure of the Manuscript according to the article type indicated in the journal instruction? (available at http://irjns.org/page/21/Submission-Instruction)
  • Is the structure of the Manuscript according to the article type indicated in the journal instruction? (available at http://irjns.org/page/21/Submission-Instruction)
  • Are all parts numbered? (Headings and Subheadings) Arabic numerals (e.g. 3. Results) (e.g. 3.1. Subheading)
  • Are the Tables and Figures numbered in order? Arabic numerals (e.g., Figure. 3)
  • Are all tables and figures cited in the manuscript?
  • Do all tables and figures have legend?
  • Are all whole numbers written in Numerical form? (1,2,3,.. Not one, two except they want to mention fraction e.g. one-third or initiate a sentence: Thirty-two patients were operated.)
  • Are all Abbreviations fully mentioned when used for the first time in the text?
  • Is "percent" written as % in the text?
  • Are the references prepared according to Vancouver referencing system in the round brackets (parentheses) not in square brackets? 
  • Is the number of references compatible with the number of references at the end of the manuscript?
  • Have the authors provided COI form (ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest)?

IrJNS Policies

The Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery expects authors to observe the necessary moral codes within their research. In case breach of the regulations occurs, the journal reserves the right to further investigate the case.
Permissions: If authors are using any material e.g. figures, tables, etc that have already been published elsewhere, they must obtain permission to reuse them from the copyright holder (this may be the publisher rather than the author) and include any required permission statements in the figure legends. This includes their own previously published material, if they are not the copyright holder. It is the author’s responsibility to secure all permissions prior to publication.Fee: Publishing paper in IrJNS is free (there are no page charges) and accessibility to articles is free as well (there are no subscription charges). So neither authors, nor readers have to pay.
Ethics: Previously published manuscripts are not accepted by the journal. Informed consent obtained from all participants and from the parents, etc must be stated in Materials & Methods. The name of the appropriate institutional review board that approved the project must also be included.
Plagiarism: IrJNS takes a tough position to plagiarism. All articles registered will be tested for plagiarism. Any article that fails to pass the plagiarism detection will be sent back to its author and the alleged author/s will be charged and the case would be reported to the affiliated university ethics committee.
Acknowledgment: All individuals who have contributed in the project but do not meet the criteria for authorship can be stated and thanked in the Acknowledgment section.
Conflicts of interest: Any sources of funding and potential conflicting interest must be declared such as receiving funds or fees. 
Tables & Figures: Tables and figures must be placed in their appropriate place in the manuscript (not at the end) with their legend being written above the Table and below the Figure. They should have borders with normal style without any colored row or column. The style of table should be simple. Tables and figures should not be an image captured from other papers and sources without permission, which can be considered as plagiarism.  
Abbreviations and Symbols: SI units should be used throughout the manuscript. Whenever possible, drugs should be given their approved generic name. Where a proprietary (brand) name is used, it should begin with a capital letter. Acronyms must be fully explained in parenthesis when first used.

Manuscript Format: The manuscript must be submitted as a Word document in English (double-spaced typed in Times New Roman font, size 12 for the body, 14 bold for the title, 12 bold for headings, 12 Italic for subheadings). PDF format is not accepted. All manuscripts should follow the style of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, a copy of which can be found at www.icmje.org.
 

Manuscript Sections

Research and Review

Abstract, Introduction, Methods & Materials/Patients, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgment (if any), Funding, Conflicts of Interest, References

Case Report/Series

Abstract, Background and Importance, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgment (if any), Funding, Conflicts of Interest, References
 

Abstract

Abstract should include 200 to 300 words for research and review articles and maximum of 250 words for case reports/series. No abstracts are required for letters to the Editor.

For articles which need a structured abstract, the abstract can be structured as follows:

Background & Aim (background, rationale and aim of the study), Methods & Materials/Patients (experimental design, patients and interventions), Results (what was found including significant data and observations), Conclusion (Interpret findings and give principal conclusions)
Abstract for Case reports/series can be structured as follows: Background and Importance: State the significance of the issue and importance of the case(s), Case Presentation: Define the case(s) presented, pertinent attendant issues, and observations, Conclusion: State outcome of case(s) and recommend treatment pathways

Keywords: Keywords should refer to the terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of MEDLINE/PubMed (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html.) and separated by semicolon. The maximum keyword number is six.

Manuscript Types: This Journal welcomes following manuscript types for publication; research articles, systematic review and meta-analysis articles, review articles, case reports/series, communication and letter to editor.
Research Article: These should be original contributions to the subject. The text should be 2000-4000 words (double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 30 references will be accepted. The article must be subdivided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods & Materials/Patients, Results, Discussion, Conclusion. In Introduction, the aim of the study should be clearly stated. The Methods & Materials/Patients section should describe in a logical sequence how the study was designed and carried out, how the data were analyzed (what hypothesis was tested, what type of study was carried out, how randomization was done, how the subjects were recruited and chosen providing accurate details of the main features of treatment, of the materials used, of drug dosages, of unusual equipment, of the statistical method ...). In the Results section the answers to the questions posed in the Introduction should be given. The Results should be reported fully, clearly and concisely supported, if necessary, by figures, graphs and tables. The Discussion section should sum up the main results, critically analyze the methods used, compare the results obtained with other published data and discuss the implications of the results. The Conclusions should briefly sum up the significance of the study and its future implications.
Clinical Trial: In accordance with the guidelines published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the changes to the policy published in an ICMJE editorial in June 2007, IrJNS requires, as a condition of consideration for publication, that all clinical trials be registered in one of 6 ICMJE-approved public trial registries. (www.irct.ir, www.ClinicalTrials.gov, www.anzctr.org.au, www.ISRCTN.org, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm, www.trialregister.nl, or https://eudract.ema.europa.eu. Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment. In addition to accepting registration in any of the above 6 registries, and following the recommendation of ICMJE, IrJNS accepts registration of clinical trials in any of the primary registers that participate in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). Whether the trial is the subject of the paper or the author refers to other trials in the text, the registration number should always be included so that we can create a link to the trial's record in the appropriate database.

Examples: Trial registration ID: NCT00404079, Trial registration ID: ISRCTN51857546

IrJNS has implemented the WHO definition of clinical trials which states that a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes." For more information, see ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis: Authors should report systematic reviews in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. For Systematic Reviews, the abstract should be subdivided into the following sequential sections: Context; Data Sources; Study Selection; Data Extraction; Results; Conclusions; and Keywords. Systematic reviews should be 3000-10000 words (abstracts to be structured as above). Consult: The Cochrane Reviewers’ Handbook Meta-analysis of observational studies. No more than 90 references will be accepted.
Review Article: Generally commissioned by the Editor-in-Chief and the Managing Editor, review articles should discuss a topic of current interest, outline current knowledge of the subject, analyze different opinions regarding the problem discussed, and be up-to-date on the latest data in the literature. The text should be 3000-8000 words (double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 80 references will be accepted.
Case Report/Series: To be considered for publication, individual case reports need to have important and novel learning points and report on unusual syndromes or diseases structured as Background and Importance, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conclusion. Brief reports must not exceed 1500 words and contain a structured abstract of maximum 250 words, 1-6 figures/tables and up to 15 references.
Letter to the Editor: Brief clinical studies can be presented as letters to the editor. Reports of individual cases which may affect clinical area or diagnostic understanding can also be submitted in this format. These can be in form of a critical re-analysis of a previously published article or a response to such a re-analysis from the authors of the original publication. Letters to the Editor may be edited for clarity or length and may be subject to peer review at the editors' discretion. Letters must not exceed 1000 words and 10 references.
Editorial: Editorials are expected to be written about the most recent debates on a topic in Neurosurgery, presenting controversial viewpoints. The editorials should contain a maximum number of 2000 words with least 5 references.
References: Using Endnote, references must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text and placed at the end of the manuscript. Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery uses Vancouver referencing style that uses a numerical approach with some changes based on ICMJE recommendations (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors). It refers to sources cited in the text and must be in numerical order according to their order of appearance. If the same piece of work is cited more than once then same citation number should be used. Each reference number should be enclosed by square brackets e.g. [5], [4-8], [4-8,11,15]. All references must be provided with their doi at the end, if available.

Author(s) last name, Title, Journal Short Name, Year, Volume (issue): Page numbers

Please note that for more than six authors, et al. should be written.

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DWPalmer AMSchiding JK. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Resource. 2002;35(5):4-22.

Book: Editor(s), compiler(s) as author: Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Author(s) and editor(s): Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

Conference Proceedings: Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer, 2002.

Dissertation: Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University, 2002.

Online Sources: For all websites references you need to note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). e.g. Royal College of General Practitioners. The Primary Health Care Team. RCGP website 2003 [cited 2004 Sep 22]; Available from: URL: http://www.rcgp.org.uk/information/publications/information/PDFInfo/21_OCT_03.pdf


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IrJNS Instructions

 | Post date: 2017/01/8 | 

(Last Update 2017, January)

Instructions for Authors 

The Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery (IrJNS) is the peer-reviewed scientific quarterly of Neurosurgical Society of Iran published by Guilan University of Medical Sciences. It accepts articles in the field of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Neurotrauma, Brain Tumors, Neuroscience, and Spine. IrJNS welcomes following manuscript types for publication; research articles, systematic review and meta-analysis articles, review articles, case reports/series, editorial, communication and letter to editors. To reach the whole pdf of instructions please download the following file ./files/site1/files/Instructions_V18.pdf  or read the guide below:

Submission Preparation

All manuscripts should be submitted through our online website, www.irjns.org and must fulfill the criteria predetermined by the editorial board of IrJNS which follows the standard guidelines stated in COPE, the details of which can be reviewed at the following address:

http://publicationethics.org/files/International%20standards_authors_for%20website_11_Nov_2011.pdf

Cover letter

All submissions must be accompanied by a cover letter which should be uploaded while submitting all other attachments which can be found here: http://irjns.org/page/115/Authors%E2%80%99-Statement.

The letter must include a statement declaring that the study has not been published before and/or submitted elsewhere concurrently and all contributions must be clearly declared. Authors reporting experimental studies on human subjects must include a statement of assurance in the Methods and Materials section of the manuscript reading that: (1) informed consent was obtained from study subjects and (2) the study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html. If copyright permission is required to reproduce any material in an article, include confirmation in the cover letter that such permission has been obtained from the copyright holder. 

Title Page

All submissions must include a title page containing the following information letter which should be uploaded while submitting all other attachments:

  • Title of the article (with first letter of each word capitalized except propositions).
  • Full name, postal address, e-mail and telephone number of the corresponding author.
  • Full name, department, institution, city and country of all co-authors.

IrJNS Policies

The Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery expects authors to observe the necessary moral codes within their research. In case breach of the regulations occurs, the journal reserves the right to further investigate the case.  

Permissions: If authors are using any material e.g. figures, tables, etc that have already been published elsewhere, they must obtain permission to reuse them from the copyright holder (this may be the publisher rather than the author) and include any required permission statements in the figure legends. This includes their own previously published material, if they are not the copyright holder. It is the author’s responsibility to secure all permissions prior to publication.

Fee: Publishing paper in IrJNS is free (there are no page charges) and accessibility to articles is free as well (there are no subscription charges). So neither authors, nor readers have to pay.

Ethics: Previously published manuscripts are not accepted by the journal. Informed consent obtained from all participants and from the parents, etc must be stated in Materials & Methods of original papers and Case Presentation of case reports. The name of the appropriate institutional review board that approved the project must also be included in all original papers.

Plagiarism: IrJNS takes a tough position to plagiarism. All articles registered will be tested for plagiarism. Any article that fails to pass the plagiarism detection will be sent back to its author and the alleged author/s will be charged and the case would be reported to the affiliated university ethics committee.

Acknowledgment: All individuals who have contributed in the project but do not meet the criteria for authorship can be stated and thanked in the Acknowledgment section.

Conflicts of interest: Any sources of funding and potential conflicting interest must be declared such as receiving funds or fees. 

Tables & Figures: Tables and figures must be placed at the end of the manuscript (in order of appearance in the text), each one in a separate page with a legend. They should have borders with normal style without any colored row or column. The style of table should be simple. Tables and figures should not be an image captured from other papers and sources without permission, which can be considered as plagiarism.  

Abbreviations and Symbols: SI units should be used throughout the manuscript. Whenever possible, drugs should be given their approved generic name. Where a proprietary (brand) name is used, it should begin with a capital letter. Acronyms must be fully explained in parenthesis when first used.

Manuscript Format

The manuscript must be submitted as a Word document in English (double-spaced typed in Times New Roman font, size 12 for the body, 14 bold for the title, 12 bold for headings, 12 Italic for subheadings). PDF format is not accepted. All manuscripts should follow the style of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, a copy of which can be found at www.icmje.org.

Manuscript Sections

Research and Review

Abstract, Introduction, Methods & Materials/Patients, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgment (if any), Funding, Conflicts of Interest, References

Case Report/Series

Abstract, Background and Importance, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgment (if any), Funding, Conflicts of Interest, References

Abstract

Abstract should include 200 to 300 words for research and review articles and maximum of 250 words for case reports/series. No abstracts are required for letters to the Editor.

For articles which need a structured abstract, the abstract can be structured as follows:

Background & Aim (background, rationale and aim of the study),

Methods & Materials/Patients (experimental design, patients and interventions)

Results (what was found including significant data and observations)

Conclusion (Interpret findings and give principal conclusions)

Abstract for Case reports/series can be structured as follows:

Background and Importance: State the significance of the issue and importance of the case(s)

Case Presentation: Define the case(s) presented, pertinent attendant issues, and observations

Conclusion: State outcome of case(s) and recommend treatment pathways

Keywords

Keywords should refer to the terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of MEDLINE/PubMed (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html.) and separated by semicolon. The maximum keyword number is eight.

Manuscript Types

This Journal welcomes following manuscript types for publication; research articles, systematic review and meta-analysis articles, review articles, case reports/series, communication and letter to editor.

Research Article

These should be original contributions to the subject. The text should be 2000-4000 words (double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 30 references will be accepted. The article must be subdivided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods & Materials/Patients, Results, Discussion, Conclusion. In Introduction, the aim of the study should be clearly stated. The Methods & Materials/Patients section should describe in a logical sequence how the study was designed and carried out, how the data were analyzed (what hypothesis was tested, what type of study was carried out, how randomization was done, how the subjects were recruited and chosen providing accurate details of the main features of treatment, of the materials used, of drug dosages, of unusual equipment, of the statistical method ...).

In the Results section the answers to the questions posed in the Introduction should be given. The Results should be reported fully, clearly and concisely supported, if necessary, by figures, graphs and tables. The Discussion section should sum up the main results, critically analyze the methods used, compare the results obtained with other published data and discuss the implications of the results. The Conclusions should briefly sum up the significance of the study and its future implications.

Clinical Trial

In accordance with the guidelines published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the changes to the policy published in an ICMJE editorial in June 2007, IrJNS requires, as a condition of consideration for publication, that all clinical trials be registered in one of 6 ICMJE-approved public trial registries. (www.irct.ir, www.ClinicalTrials.gov, www.anzctr.org.au, www.ISRCTN.org, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm, www.trialregister.nl, or https://eudract.ema.europa.eu. Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment. In addition to accepting registration in any of the above 6 registries, and following the recommendation of ICMJE, IrJNS accepts registration of clinical trials in any of the primary registers that participate in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). Whether the trial is the subject of the paper or the author refers to other trials in the text, the registration number should always be included so that we can create a link to the trial's record in the appropriate database.

Examples:

Trial registration ID: NCT00404079

Trial registration ID: ISRCTN51857546

IrJNS has implemented the WHO definition of clinical trials which states that a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes." For more information, see ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.

Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis

Authors should report systematic reviews in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. For Systematic Reviews, the abstract should be subdivided into the following sequential sections:

Context; Data Sources; Study Selection; Data Extraction; Results; Conclusions; and Keywords. Systematic reviews should be 3000-10000 words (abstracts to be structured as above). Consult: The Cochrane Reviewers’ Handbook Meta-analysis of observational studies. No more than 90 references will be accepted.

Review Article

Generally commissioned by the Editor-in-Chief and the Managing Editor, review articles should discuss a topic of current interest, outline current knowledge of the subject, analyze different opinions regarding the problem discussed, and be up-to-date on the latest data in the literature. The text should be 3000-8000 words (double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 80 references will be accepted.

Case Report/Series

To be considered for publication, individual case reports need to have important and novel learning points and report on unusual syndromes or diseases structured as Background and Importance, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conclusion. Brief reports must not exceed 1500 words and contain a structured abstract of maximum 250 words, 1-6 figures/tables and up to 15 references.

Letter to the Editor

Brief clinical studies can be presented as letters to the editor. Reports of individual cases which may affect clinical area or diagnostic understanding can also be submitted in this format. These can be in form of a critical re-analysis of a previously published article or a response to such a re-analysis from the authors of the original publication. Letters to the Editor may be edited for clarity or length and may be subject to peer review at the editors' discretion. Letters must not exceed 1000 words and 10 references.

References

Using Endnote, references must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text and placed at the end of the manuscript. Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery uses Vancouver referencing style that uses a numerical approach with some changes based on ICMJE recommendations (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors). It refers to sources cited in the text and must be in numerical order according to their order of appearance. If the same piece of work is cited more than once then same citation number should be used. Each reference number should be enclosed by square brackets e.g. [5], [4-8], [4-8,11,15]. All references must be provided with their doi at the end, if available.

Author(s) last name, Title, Journal Short Name, Year, Volume (issue): Page numbers

Please note that for more than six authors, et al. should be written.

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DWPalmer AMSchiding JK. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;35(5):4-22.

Book

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author

Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Author(s) and editor(s)

Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

Conference Proceedings

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer, 2002.

Dissertation

Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University, 2002.

Online Sources

For all websites references you need to note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). e.g.

Royal College of General Practitioners. The Primary Health Care Team. RCGP website 2003 [cited 2004 Sep 22]; Available from: URL: http://www.rcgp.org.uk/information/publications/information/PDFInfo/21_OCT_03.pdf


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