Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2017)                   Iran J Neurosurg 2017, 3(3): 103-108 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Yousefzadeh-Chabok S, Kazemnejad-Leili E, Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati L, Moghtader M, Abolfathi N, Reihanian Z et al . Hydrocephalus in Patients With Head Trauma: A Series of 14 Patients. Iran J Neurosurg. 2017; 3 (3) :103-108
URL: http://irjns.org/article-1-113-en.html
1- 1 Neuroscience Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. 2 Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
2- Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
3- Department of Nursing, Poursina Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
4- Department of Neurosurgery, Poursina Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
Abstract:   (2674 Views)
Background and Aim: Hydrocephalus can cause ventricular expansion, which if not treated promptly, can result in brain damage. The hydrocephalus-induced damage is not fully improved, even by means of surgical procedures, leading to permanent damages to the brain.
Methods and Materials/Patients: The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics as well as hydrocephalus in patients with head trauma in Poursina Hospital, Rasht. The information including age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), trauma mechanism and accompanying brain injuries on admission were recorded. Patients with hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan underwent further investigation and therapeutic approaches. The treatment-related results were collected based on the GOS scale. Finally, the data were entered into SPSS version 18, and the results were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test, and Independent t-test.
Results: Of the 548 patients, hydrocephalus was observed in 14 patients (2.6%). The mean age of the patients was 44.07±24.48 years old. 31.1% of men (14 cases) had hydrocephalus, while none of women suffered from this complication. Car accidents (12 people) and fall (2 people) were identified as causes of incident in hydrocephalus patients. Head injury severity in most patients with hydrocephalus was mild (n=7, GCS=13-15) and moderate (n=6, GCS=9-12), and severe (n=1, GCS=3-8). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=5) and then epidural hematoma (n=4) and intracerebral hemorrhage (n=4) had the most severe damage to the skull. Most patients (n=11) were treated by surgery. Three patients recovered completely. Moderate disability, severe disability, vegetative state, and death occurred in 3, 2, 1, and 5 Patients, respectively. According to independent t-test, there is a statistically significant relationship between Glasgow Coma Scale and hydrocephalus (P=0.03). Fisher’s exact test also showed a statistically significant relationship between intracerebral hemorrhage (P=0.045) and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.013) on admission with hydrocephalic incidence.
Conclusion: This complication was mostly observed in young traumatic patients (younger than 40 years of age) and in patients with mild head injury. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to these people in order to detect hydrocephalus, if any, as soon as possible, and these patients be treated appropriately.
Full Text [PDF 592 kb]   (1724 Downloads) |   |   Full Text (HTML)  (753 Views)  
Type of Study: Research |

1. alimi J, Nassaji Zavareh M, Khaji A. [Trauma mortality in six university hospitals: Tehran, IRAN (Persian)]. Tehran University Medical Journal. 2008; 65(14):22-5.
2. Weintraub AH, Gerber DJ, Kowalski RG. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus as a confounding influence on brain injury rehabilitation: incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2017; 98(2):312-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2016.08.478 [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2016.08.478]
3. Ding J, Guo Y, Tian H. The influence of decompressive craniectomy on the development of hydrocephalus: a review. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. 2014; 72(9):715-20. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20140106 [DOI:10.1590/0004-282X20140106]
4. Choi I, Park HK, Chang JC, Cho SJ, Choi SK, Byun BJ. Clinical factors for the development of posttraumatic hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. 2008; 43(5):227-31. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2008.43.5.227 [DOI:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.5.227]
5. Cardoso ER, Galbraith S. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus—a retrospective review. Surgical Neurology. 1985; 23(3):261-64. doi: 10.1016/0090-3019(85)90092-8 [DOI:10.1016/0090-3019(85)90092-8]
6. Oi S. Classification of hydrocephalus: critical analysis of classification categories and advantages of "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification" (Mc HC). Child's Nervous System. 2011; 27(10):1523-33. doi: 10.1007/s00381-011-1542-6 [DOI:10.1007/s00381-011-1542-6]
7. Katz RT, Brander V, Sahgal V. Update on the diagnosis and management of posttraumatic hydrocephalus. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1989; 68(2):91-6. doi: 10.1097/00002060-198904000-00009 [DOI:10.1097/00002060-198904000-00009]
8. Kralick F, Oh J, Medina T, Noh H.. Micro-fabricated shunt to mimic arachnoid granulations for the treatment of communicating hydrocephalus. Neurochirurgica Supplementum. 2012; 114:239-42. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0956-4_47 [DOI:10.1007/978-3-7091-0956-4_47]
9. Schapira HV. Neurology and clinical Neuroscience. New York: Elsevier; 2007.
10. Cinalli G, Spennato P, Nastro A, Aliberti F, Trischitta V, Ruggiero C, et al. Hydrocephalus in aqueductal stenosis. Child's Nervous System. 2011; 27(10):1621–42. doi: 10.1007/s00381-011-1546-2 [DOI:10.1007/s00381-011-1546-2]
11. Fleischer AS, Huhn SL, Meislin H. Post-traumatic acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1988; 17(2):165–7. doi: 10.1016/s0196-0644(88)80305-6 [DOI:10.1016/S0196-0644(88)80305-6]
12. Iencean STM, Ianovici N, Ciurea AV. Intracranial pressure monitoring study in severe traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic hydrocephalus. Romanian Neurosurgery. 2009; 16(2):17-9.
13. Sarkari A, Gupta DK, Sinha S, et al. Post-traumatic hydrocephalus : Presentation, management and outcome – An apex trauma center experience. Indian Journal of Neurotrauma. 2010; 7(2):135-8. doi: 10.1016/s0973-0508(10)80028-0 [DOI:10.1016/S0973-0508(10)80028-0]
14. Rodrigues D, Sharma RR, Sousa J. Post-traumatic hydrocephalus in severe head injury series of 22 cases. Pan Arab Journal of Neurosurgery. 2000; 4(2):1-10.
15. Mori K. Current concept of hydrocephalus: ٍvolution of classification. Child's Nervous System. 1995; 11(9):523-31. doi: 10.1007/bf00822842 [DOI:10.1007/BF00822842]
16. Tian HL, Xu T, Hu J, Cui Y, Chen H, Zhou LF. Risk factors related to hydrocephalus after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Surgical Neurology. 2008; 69(3):241–6. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2007.02.032 [DOI:10.1016/j.surneu.2007.02.032]
17. Gupta SK, Sharma T. Acute post-traumatic hydrocephalus in an infant due to aqueductal obstruction by a blood clot: a case report. Child's Nervous System. 2009; 25(3):373-6. doi: 10.1007/s00381-008-0750-1 [DOI:10.1007/s00381-008-0750-1]
18. Zhao J, Chen Z, Xi G, Keep RF, Hua Y. Deferoxamine attenuates acute hydrocephalus after traumatic brain injury in rats. Translational Stroke Research. 2014; 5(5):586-94. doi: 10.1007/s12975-014-0353-y [DOI:10.1007/s12975-014-0353-y]
19. Kim SW, Lee SM, Shin H. Clinical analysis of posttraumatic hydrocephalus. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. 2005; 38(3):211-4.
20. Mazzini L, Campini R, Angelino E, Rognone F, Pastore I, Oliveri G. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus: a clinical, neuroradiologic, and neuropsychologic assessment of long-term outcome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2003; 84(11):1637-41. PMID: 14639563 [DOI:10.1053/S0003-9993(03)00314-9]
21. Bhatoe HS, Batish VK. Post head injury hydrocephalus. Indian Journal of Neurotrauma. 2005; 2(2):131-3. doi: 10.1016/s0973-0508(05)80028-0 [DOI:10.1016/S0973-0508(05)80028-0]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Neurosurgery

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb